The access() system call checks the accessibility of the file specified in pathname based on a process’s real user and group IDs (and supplementary group IDs).
#include <unistd.h> int access(const char *pathname, int mode);
If pathname is a symbolic link, access() dereferences it. If all of the permissions specified in mode are granted on pathname, then access() returns 0; if at least one of the requested per- missions is not available (or an error occurred), then access() returns –1.
The time gap between a call to access() and a subsequent operation on a file means that there is no guarantee that the information returned by access() will still be true at the time of the later operation (no matter how brief the interval). This situation could lead to security holes in some application designs.
Suppose, for example, that we have a set-user-ID-root program that uses access() to check that a file is accessible to the real user ID of the program, and, if so, per- forms an operation on the file (e.g., open() or exec()).
The problem is that if the pathname given to access() is a symbolic link, and a malicious user manages to change the link so that it refers to a different file before the second step, then the set-user-ID-root may end up operating on a file for which the real user ID does not have permission. (This is an example of the type of time-of- check, time-of-use race condition described in Section 38.6.) For this reason, recommended practice is to avoid the use of access() altogether (see, for example, [Borisov, 2005]). In the example just given, we can achieve this by temporarily changing the effective (or file system) user ID of the set-user-ID process, attempting the desired operation (e.g., open() or exec()), and then checking the return value and errno to determine whether the operation failed because of a permissions problem.
I will update this section with a demo as soon as I am back at work.